Wednesday, April 6, 2016

A Taste of Yiddish 4.31 - Pesach

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this week's proverbs, idioms, expressions
די יידן מאַכן איין מאָל אַ יאָר אַ סדר און מ'פרעגט מה נשתּנה

transliteration
di yidn makhn eyn mol in yor a seder un m'fregt ma nishtana

the proverb actually means
the Jews make a seder (order or organization) once a year and they ask ma nishtana (why is this night different than all the other nights)

translated to Hebrew
היהודים עושים פעם בשנה סדר ושואלים מה נשתנה

Yiddish Expressions
מאַכן כּעפרא דארעא1

transliterated
makhn ke'afre de'ar'e

in English
to make someone's theory or of someone like dust of the earth (degrade or reduce to nothing)

in Hebrew
לעשות ממישהו או משהו אפס (ז''א לעשות ממנו כעפרא דארעא)י

or another
מצה וואַסער

transliterated
matse vaser

in English
(lit.matzo water, refers to the water that is put aside overnight to use the next day to bake the matzo for Passover) it is used when you want to say something that sold like hotcakes, or flew off the shelves, you say it went like matse vaser

in Hebrew
משהו שעף מהמדפיםשנמכר במהירות נקרא זה נמכר כמו מצה וואַסער (מי מצה)י

another expression
עד כאן אומרים בשבת הגדול

transliterated
ad kan omrim be'shabes hagodol

in English
until here you say on Shabbos Hagadol 
(on the Shabbos before Passover in the afternoon you recite part of the Haggada that you recite at the seder, but not quite the whole thing. At the point that you need to stop it says “until here you say on Shabbos Hagadol”) The expression is used when you want to say “up to this point I'll take it, but this is where it ends”

a description of a miser
ס'זענען פאַראַן מענטשן וואָס דאַרפן נישט בּודק חמץ זײַן אין זייערע קעשענעסס'איז נישט קײַן אָרט שידו מגעת

translitrated
s'zenen faran mentshn vos darfn nisht boydek khomets zayn in zey'e're
ke'sh'nes; siz nit kayn ort she'yo'doy ma'ga'as

in English
there are people that don't need to remove the chometz from their pockets: the law states that you only have to remove chometz from the areas that your hands reach. (since, he never puts his hands in his pockets he is exempt)

in Hebrew
ישנם אנשים שלא צריכים לבדוק את הכיסים לפני פסח לחפש חמץי(לפי הלכה צריכים לבדוק רק במקום שידו מגעת) 
מדובר באנשים שלא מכניסים את הידים לכיס (לתת צדקהכל השנה (קמצנים)י



פאַרקויפן דעם חמץ
אַ פּאָר פאָלק האָבּן זיך אַרומגעקריגט בּײַ בּדיקת חמץ נאַכט. דער מאַן זאָגט צום פרוי, “אַ שאָד וואָס איך קען דיך נישט אויסרוימען מיטן חמץ.” האָט דער פרוי בּאַלד צוריקגעגעבּן, “דאַרפסט זיך גאָרנישט זאָרגן. מײַן פאָטער האָט מיך שוין פאַרקויפט פאַר אַ גוי מיט אַ סך יאָרן צוריק......''

farkoyfn dem khomets
a por folk hobn zikh a'rumgekrigt ba bedikes khomets nakht. “a shod vos ikh ken dikh nit oysroymen mit khomets.” hot der froy bald tsurikgegebn, “darfst zikh gornit zorgn. mayn foter hot mikh shoyn farkoyft far a goy mit a sakh yorn tsurik....”

Selling The Chometz
a couple was bickering the night of bedikas chametz. The husband says to the wife, “It's a pity that I can't sweep you out with the chametz.” The woman retorted, “You need not worry, my father already sold me to a goy many years ago.....”

מכירת חמץ
זוג, פעם רבו בליל בדיקת חמץ. אומר הבעל לאשתו, ''חבל שאני לא יכול לטאטא אותך החוצה עם החמץ.'' האישה החזירה לו במקום, ''אין לך מה לדאוג בכלל. אבא שלי מכר אותי לגוי לפני שנים....''



Chametz, also Chometz,, are leavened foods that are forbidden on the Jewish holiday of Passover. According to Jewish law, Jews may not own, eat or benefit from chametz during Passover. This law appears several times in the Torah; the punishment for eating chametz on Passover is the divine punishment of kareth ("spiritual excision"), one of the severest levels of punishment in Judaism.
Chametz is a product that is both made from one of five types of grain, and has been combined with water and left to stand raw for longer than eighteen minutes.
Removal of Chametz,
In addition to the Biblical prohibition of owning chametz, there is also a positive commandment to remove it from one's possession. There are three traditional methods of removing chametz:
  • Bi'ur burning one's chametz. All appropriate methods of destruction are included in this category. On the night preceding the 14th of Nisan, a formal search of the house known as bedikat chametz ("search for chametz") is conducted by candlelight. The chametz found in this search is burned the next morning in a formal bi'ur ceremony.
    1Bittul: nullifying one's chametz. On the night and again on the morning of the 14th of Nissan, at the formal bedikah and bi'ur respectively, the head of the household recites an Aramaic statement nullifying all chametz remaining in the family's possession. The statements conclude that the chametz "shall be nullified and considered ownerless as the dust of the earth." Bittul must be done before the prohibition of chametz takes effect; once five twelfths of the day have passed on Passover eve, bittul is no longer an effective means of removal and any chametz one discovers must be destroyed]
  • Mechirah selling one's chametz. Until five-twelfths of the way through Passover Eve one may sell or give ones chametz to a non-Jew, and it is no longer ones responsibility. One who keeps the sold chametz in his or her household must seal it away so that it will not be visible during the holiday. After the holiday, the non-Jew generally sells the chametz back to the original owners, via the agent; however, he is under no obligation to do so.
It is considered best to use both bi'ur and bittul to remove one's chametz, even though either of these two methods is enough to fulfill one's biblical requirement to destroy one's chametz. Mechirah, which averts the prohibition of ownership, is an alternative to destruction
Afikoman, meaning "that which comes after" or "dessert") is the larger piece of matzo which is broken in two during the early stages of the Passover Seder and set aside to be eaten as a dessert after the meal.
Based on the Mishnah in Pesahim 119a, the afikoman is a substitute for the Korban Pesach, which was the last thing eaten at the Passover Seder during the eras of the First and Second Temples and during the period of the Mishkan. The Afikoman refers to the Matza eaten at the end of the meal, or the Matza that causes the rule of "Afikoman" to go into effect.
In some families, the head of the household hides the afikoman for the children to find, and rewards them with money or candy. In other families, the children "steal" the afikoman and ask for a reward for its return. Either way, the afikoman has become a device for keeping children awake and alert during the Seder proceedings, until the time it is needed for dessert.
Custom of "stealing" the afikoman
The custom of hiding the afikoman so that the children at the Seder will "steal" it and demand a reward for it is based on the following Gemara: Rabbi Eliezer says that one should "grab the matzos" so that the children won't fall asleep According to Rambam, Rabbi Eliezer is referring to the practice of stealing the afikoman so that the children should stay awake until the end of the meal.
The Haggadah Otzar Divrei HaMeforshim cites several other reasons for the custom of stealing the afikoman. According to Mekor Chaim - Chavos Yair, this custom demonstrates our love for the mitzvah of afikoman. Rabbi Menashe Klein, the Ungvarer Rebbe, says that this custom is a re-enactment of the biblical account of Jacob stealing the blessings that were supposed to go to his brother Esau. Midrash Pliah says that Isaac told Esau, "Your brother came with trickery" (Genesis 27:35), adding, "and he took out the afikoman." According to the Midrash, this account took place on Passover. Therefore, the children steal the afikoman to get the blessings, which are the present that they ask their fathers to buy for them.
Eating the afikoman
After the meal and customary desserts, the leader of the Seder distributes pieces of the afikoman to each guest. If there is not enough to go around, additional pieces of matzo may be added to each person's portion of afikoman.
The halakha prescribes that an olive-sized piece of matzo be eaten to fulfill the mitzvah of eating the afikoman. Many people eat an additional, olive-sized piece of matzo together with it. The first piece of matzo commemorates theKorban Pesach (Paschal lamb), whose meat was eaten at the very end of the festive Seder meal in the days that the Temple stood. The second piece commemorates the matzo that was eaten together with the meat of the Paschal Lamb in the days of the Temple, in fulfillment of the Torah commandment, "They shall eat [the Passover lamb] together with matzo and maror" (Exodus 12:8) Like the eating of the matzo earlier in the Seder, the afikoman is eaten while reclining to the left (in Orthodox Jewish circles, women and girls do not lean).
According to Jewish law, the afikoman must be consumed before midnight, just as the Korban Pesach was eaten before midnight during the days of the Temple in Jerusalem. Thus, if the Seder is running late with much singing and discussion of the themes of the Exodus from Egypt, families may have to shorten the meal segment of the Seder and proceed quickly to the afikoman.


After the eating of the afikoman, no other food may be eaten for the rest of the night, other than the last two cups of wine at the Seder and coffee, tea, or water.

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A proverb is a short, generally known sentence of the folk which contains wisdom, truth, morals, and traditional views in a metaphorical, fixed and memorizable form and which is handed down from generation to generation

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